Astragalus Membranaceus Research Links
  1. Astragalus Polycassharides Inhibit Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Infection by Regulating Viral Replication.

Microbial Pathogenesis 114 (2018) 124–128.  Pengju Zhanga, Xuefeng Liub, Haiyan Liua, Weixia Wanga, Xiaohui Liua, Xintao Lia, Xinghong Wua

  1. Astragalus polysaccharides enhance the immune response to avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccination in chickens.  

Microb Pathog. 2017 Oct;111:81-85. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.08.023. Epub 2017 Aug 18. Zhang P, Wang J, Wang W, Liu X, Liu H, Li X, Wu X.

  1. The Effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 Expression and Immune Cell Activation in Humans.

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH Phytother. Res. 20, 687–695 (2006)  Julie Brush, Elissa Mendenhall, Alena Guggenheim, Tracy Chan, Erin Connelly, Amala Soumyanath, Randal Buresh, Richard Barrett and Heather Zwickey.

  1. Immune system effects of echinacea, ginseng, and astragalus: a review

Integrative Cancer Therapies 2003 Sep;2(3):247-67.  Keith I Block, Mark N Mead

Andrographis Paniculata Research Links

  • A Double Blind Study with a New Monodrug: Kan Jang Decrease of Symptoms and Enhancement of Resistance to Common Colds.
  • Phototherapy Research 9: 559- 562, 1995.  JL. Hancke et al.

  • Prevention of common colds with Andrographis paniculata dried extract: A Pilot double blind trial 
  • Phytomed. 4 (2), 101-104 (1997).  D.D. Cáceres et al.

  • Use of visual analogue scale measurements (VAS) to asses the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of common cold. A randomized double blind-placebo study 
  • Phytomedicine Volume 6, Issue 4, October 1999, Pages 217-223.  D.D.Cáceres, J.L.Hancke, R.A.Burgos, F.Sandberg, G.K.Wikman

  • Andrographolide As a Potential Inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease: An In Silico Approach   
  • Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, Apr 2020. Sukanth Kumar Enmozhi, Kavitha Raja, Irudhayasamy Sebastine, Tiruchirappalli, & Jerrine Joseph

    1. Andrographis paniculata (Chuān Xīn LiaÂn) for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory tract infections in adults and children: A systematic review and meta-analysis 

    PLoS One. 2018; 13(11).  Xiao-Yang Hu, Ruo-Han Wu, Martin Logue, Clara Blondel, Lily Yuen Wan Lai, Beth Stuart, Andrew Flower, Yu-Tong Fei, Michael Moore, Jonathan Shepherd, Jian-Ping Liu, and George Lewith

  • Immunomodulatory activity of andrographolide on macrophage activation and specific antibody response.
  • Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010 Feb; 31(2): 191–201. Wei Wang, Jing Wang, Sheng-fu Dong, Chun-hong Liu, Paola Italiani, Shu-hui Sun, Jing Xu, Diana Boraschi, Shi-ping Ma, and Di Qu

    1. Activity of Andrographolide and Its Derivatives against Influenza Virus in Vivo and in Vitro 

    Biological and Pharmaceutical.  Volume 32 (2009) Issue 8

    Jian-Xin Chen, Hui-Jun Xue, Wen-Cai Ye, Bing-Hu Fang, Ya-Hong Liu, Shao-Hua Yuan, Pei Yu, Yu-Qiang Wang

  • A Phase I Trial of Andrographolide in HIV Positive Patients and Normal Volunteers 
  • Phytotherapy Research. Volume14, Issue5 August 2000 

    Pages 333-338.  Carlo Calabrese  Sheryl H. Berman  John G. Babish  Xinfang Ma  Lynne Shinto  Melissa Dorr  Kameron Wells  Cynthia A. Wenner  Leanna J. Standish;2-D

  • Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection 
  • Scientific Report. 2015; 5: 14179.  Phitchayapak Wintachai, Parveen Kaur, Regina Ching Hua Lee, Suwipa Ramphan, Atichat Kuadkitkan, Nitwara Wikan, Sukathida Ubol, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Justin Jang Hann Chu, and Duncan R. Smith

    1. Broad-spectrum antiviral properties of andrographolide 

    Archives of Virology 162(3) · November 2016.  Swati Gupta, K. P. Mishra.

  • Analyzing the interaction of a herbal compound Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata as a folklore against swine flu (H1N1) 
  • Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2014 Sep; 4: S624–S630.  Chandrabhan Seniya, Shilpi Shrivastava, Sanjay Kumar Singh, and Ghulam Jilani Khan

    1. Antiviral and Immunostimulant Activities of Andrographis paniculata 

    HAYATI Journal of Biosciences 22(2) · April 2015.    Churiyah, Elrade Rofaani, Olivia Bunga Pongtuluran

  • Possible inhibitors of ACE2, the receptor of 2019-nCoV 
  • Pharmacology & Toxicology February 2020.  Qinghua Cui, Chuanbo Huang, Xiangwen Ji, Wanlu Zhang, Fenghong Zhang, Liang Wang

  • Computational Investigation on Andrographis paniculata Phytochemicals to Evaluate Their Potency Against SARS-CoV-2 in Comparison to Known Antiviral Compounds in Drug Trials.

    Natarajan Arul Murugan, Chitra Jeyaraj Pandian and Jeyaraman Jeyakanthan

  • Crosstalk Between Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Anti-Viral Activities: A Novel Therapeutic Target for COVID-19.
  • Life Science 2020 Aug 15; 255: 117842.  

    Aditi Banerjee, Steven J. Czinn, Russel J. Reiter, and Thomas G. Blanchard

    Elderberry Research Links:

  • Inhibition of Several Strains of Influenza Virus in Vitro and Reduction of Symptoms by an Elderberry Extract {Sambucus nigra L.) during an Outbreak of Influenza B Panama.
  • Journal of Alternative Complementary Medecine . Winter 1995;1(4):361-9.  

    Z Zakay-Rones, N Varsano, M Zlotnik, O Manor, L Regev, M Schlesinger, M Mumcuoglu

  • Randomized Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Elderberry Extract in
  • the Treatment of Influenza A and B Virus Infections

    Journal of International Medical Research. Mar-Apr 2004;32(2):132-40.  

    Z Zakay-Rones, E Thom, T Wollan, J Wadstein

  • Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Nutrients . 2016 Mar 24;8(4):182.  Evelin Tiralongo, Shirley S. Wee, and Rodney A. Lea

  • Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical
  • Trials

    Complementary Therapies in Medicine Volume 42, February 2019, Pages 361-365

    Jessie Hawkins, Colby Baker, Lindsey Cherry, Elizabeth Dunne

  • A Systematic Review on the Sambuci fructus Effect and Efficacy Profiles.
  • Phytotherapy Research.  2010 Jan;24(1):1-8.  J E Vlachojannis, M Cameron, S Chrubasik

  • Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses
  • BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11:16.  Christian Krawitz, Mobarak Abu Mraheil, Michael Stein, Can Imirzalioglu, Eugen Domann, Stephan Pleschka, Torsten Hain

  • Sambucus nigra extracts inhibit infectious bronchitis virus at an early point during replication
  • BMC Veterinary Research 2014, 10:24.  Christie Chen, David M Zuckerman, Susanna Brantley, Michka Sharpe, Kevin Childress, Egbert Hoiczyk, and Amanda R Pendleton

  • Interfering With Lipid Raft Association: A Mechanism to Control Influenza Virus Infection By Sambucus Nigra
  • Iran J Pharm Res. 2017 Summer; 16(3): 1147–1154.  

    Shahla Shahsavandi, Mohammad Majid Ebrahimi, and Ameneh Hasaninejad Farahani

  • Plant-made virus-like particles bearing influenza hemagglutinin (HA) recapitulate early interactions of native influenza virions with human monocytes/macrophages
  • Vaccine Volume 35, Issue 35, Part B, 16 August 2017, Pages 4629-4636.

    Alexander I. Makarkov, Sabrina Chierzi, Stéphane Pillet, Keith K. Murai, Nathalie Landry, Brian J. Ward

    Echinacea Research Links

    1. Randomised, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Echinacea Supplementation in Air Travellers 

    Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012. E. Tiralongo, R. A. Lea, S. S. Wee, M. M. Hanna, and L. R. Griffiths

    1. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Echinacea purpurea to Prevent Common Cold Episodes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012.  M. Jawad, R. Schoop, A. Suter, P. Klein, and R. Eccles

    1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effect of Fluid Extract of Echinacea Purpurea on the

    Incidence and Severity of Colds and Respiratory Infections

    THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE February 1999 Volume 106.   Wolfram Grimm, Hans-Helge Muller

    1. The effect of Echinacea spp. on the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 and other respiratory tract infections in humans: A rapid review

    Adv Integr Med. 2020 Aug 1. Monique Aucoin, Kieran Cooley, Paul Richard Saunders, Jenny Carè, Dennis Anheyer, Daen N Medina, Valentina Cardozo, Daniella Remy, Nicole Hannan, Anna Garber

    1. Immune system effects of echinacea, ginseng, and astragalus: a review

    Integrative Cancer Therapies 2003 Sep;2(3):247-67.  Keith I Block, Mark N Mead

    1. The Effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 Expression and Immune Cell Activation in Humans.

    Phytotherapy Research, 687–695 (2006)  Julie Brush, Elissa Mendenhall, Alena Guggenheim, Tracy Chan, Erin Connelly, Amala Soumyanath, Randal Buresh, Richard Barrett and Heather Zwickey.

    1. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 20;2(2):CD000530.Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, Bauer R, Ardjomand-Woelkart K, Linde K

    1. Echinacea Root Extracts for the Prevention of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. A Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    Arch Fam Med. Nov-Dec 1998;7(6):541-5.Dieter Melchart, Ellen Walther; Klaus Linde, Roland Brandmaier, Christian Lersch.