In a study published in 2006, 30 men recruited from a 24-hour mountain biking event were given either 100mg of LJ100® or placebo. The volunteers completed four 15-mile laps (total 60 miles) and provided eight saliva samples. At the end of the study, cortisol levels were 32.3% lower in the LJ100® group compared to placebo, and free testosterone levels were 16.4% higher in the LJ100® group compared to placebo suggesting LJ100® apoptogenic ability to maintain low normal levels of cortisol and high normal levels of testosterone, improved anabolic state during intense endurance workouts.
In a 2013 randomized placebo-controlled study, 63 subjects (32 men, 32 women) with moderate stress were given 200mg of LJ100® or placebo for 4 weeks. LJ100® showed improved overall mood state: Tension (−11%), Anger (−12%), and Confusion (−15%). Stress hormone profile (salivary cortisol and testosterone) was significantly improved by LJ100® supplementation, reduced cortisol exposure (−16%) and increased testosterone status (+37%).
In a 2016 randomized placebo controlled study, 84 middle-aged men & women with low Scoring of Immunological Vigor (SIV) were given 200mg/day of LJ100® for 1 month. LJ100® promotes immunosenescence by significantly improved SIV score, immunological grade, and immunological age by 4 years. The number of total, naïve, CD4+ T cells, and natural killer cells were also significantly increased.
In another study with healthy male recreational athletes, supplementation with LJ100® significantly increased NK cells, supporting immune functions after endurance running in the heat.
In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling internationally, supplementation of elderberry supplement encourage timely immune cell response and supports the body to maintain a strong defense during stressful intercontinental air travel.